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A variation of standard time in order to make better use of daylight. In the Unite



Related Terms

ZONE TIME

The local mean time of a reference or zone meridian whose time is kept throughout a designated zone. The zone meridian is usually the nearest meridian whose longitude is exactly divisible by 15°. Standard time is a variation of zone time with irregular but well-defined zone limits. Daylight saving or summer time is usually 1 hour later than zone or standard time.

SUMMER TIME

A variation of standard time in which the clocks are advanced 1 hour. The variation when the clocks are advanced 2 hours is called double summer time. The expression is used principally in Europe.

CONSTANT ELEMENT

Under a specified set of conditions, an element for which the standard time allowance should always be the same.

SAYBOLT UNIVERSAL SECONDS (SUS)

The time in seconds required for 60 cubic centimeters of a fluid to flow through the orifice of the Standard Saybolt Universal Viscometer at a given temperature under specified conditions. (ASTM Designation D 88.

MERIDIAN

A north-south reference line, particularly a great circle through the geographical poles of the earth. The term usually refers to the upper branch, the half, from pole to pole, which passes through a given place; the other half being called the lower branch. An astronomical (terrestrial) meridian is a line connecting points having the same astronomical longitude. A geodetic meridian is a line connecting points of equal geodetic longitude. Geodetic and sometime astronomical meridians are also called geographic meridians. Geodetic meridians are shown on charts. The prime meridian passes through longitude 0°. Sometimes designated TRUE MERIDIAN to distinguish it from magnetic meridian, compass meridian, or grid meridian, the north-south lines relative to magnetic, compass, or grid direction, respectively. A fictitious meridian is one of a series of great circles or lines used in place of a meridian for certain purposes. A transverse or inverse meridian is a great circle perpendicular to a transverse equator. An oblique meridian is a great circle perpendicular to an oblique equator. Any meridian used as a reference for reckoning time is called a time meridian. The meridian used for reckoning standard zone, daylight saving, or war time is called standard, zone, daylight saving, or war meridian respectively. The meridian through any particular place or observer, serving as the reference for local time, is called local meridian, in contrast with the Greenwich meridian, the reference for Greenwich time. A celestial meridian is a great circle of the celestial sphere, through the celestial poles and the zenith. Also called CIRCLE OF LATITUDE.

DIFFERENTIAL PIECE-RATE SYSTEM

A wage plan based on a standard task time whereby the worker receives increased or decreased piece rates as his or her production varies from that expected for the standard time. following pressure reduction. differential steam calorimeter

SOLAR TIME

Time based upon the rotation of the earth relative to the sun. Solar time may be classified as mean if the mean sun is the reference; or as apparent if the apparent sun is the reference. The difference between mean and apparent time is called EQUATION OF TIME. Solar time may be further classified according to the reference meridian, either the local or Greenwich meridian or addition- ally in the case of mean time, a designated zone meridian. Standard and daylight saving or summer time are variations of zone time. Time may also be designated according to the timepiece, as chronometer time or watch time, the time indicated by these instruments.

SPEED

Rate of motion. The terms SPEED and VELOCITY are often used interchangeably but SPEED is a scalar, having magnitude only while VELOCITY is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction. Rate of motion in a straight line is called linear speed, while change of direction per unit time is called angular velocity. Subsonic, sonic, and supersonic refer to speeds respectively less than, equal to, greater than the speed of sound in standard air at sea level. Transonic speeds are those in the range in which flow patterns change from subsonic to supersonic, or vice versa.

STANDARD REFRACTIVE MODULUS GRADIENT

The uniform variation of refractive modulus with height above the earth’s surface which is regarded as a standard for comparison. The gradient considered as normal has a value of 0.12M unit per meter. The M unit is the unit in terms of which the refractive modulus is expressed.

UNIVERSAL TIME

Conceptually, time as determined from the apparent diurnal motion of a fictitious mean sun which moves uniformly along the celestial equator at the average rate of the apparent sun. Actually, Universal Time (UT) is related to the rotation of the earth through its definition in terms of sidereal time. Universal Time at any instant is derived from observations of the diurnal motions of the stars. The time scale determined directly from such observations is slightly dependent on the place of observation; this scale is designated UT0. By removing from UT0 the effect of the variation of the observer’s meridian due to the observed motion of the geographic pole, the scale UT1 is established. A scale designated UT2 results from applying to UT1 an adopted formula for the seasonal variation in the rate of the earth’s rotation. UT1 and UT2 are independent of the location of the observer. UT1 is the same as Greenwich mean time used in navigation.

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