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A short to medium range low frequency (70- 130 kHz) radionavigation system which yields a hyperbolic line of position of high accuracy. The system is an arrangement of fixed, phase locked, continuous wave transmitters operating on harmoni- cally related frequencies and special receiving and display equip- ment carried on a vessel or other craft. The operation of the system depends on phase comparison of the signals from the transmitters brought to a common comparison frequency within the receiver.



Related Terms

OMEGA NAVIGATION SYSTEM

A worldwide. continuous, radionavigation system of medium accuracy which provides hyperbolic lines of position through phase comparisons of VLF (10-14kHz) continuous wave signals transmitted on a common frequency on a time- shared basis. The full system is comprised of eight transmitting stations.

CHART CLASSIFICATION BY SCALE

  1. Charts are constructed on many different scales, ranging from about 1:2,500 to 1:14,000,000 (and even smaller for some world charts). Small-scale charts are used for voyage planning and offshore navigation. Charts of larger scale are used as the vessel approaches land. Several methods of classifying charts according to scale are in use in various nations. The follow- ing classifications of nautical charts are those used by the National Ocean Survey: Sailing charts are the smallest scale charts used for planning, fixing position at sea, and for plotting while proceeding on a long voyage. The scale is generally smaller than 1:600,000. The shoreline and topography are generalized and only offshore soundings, the principal navigational lights, outer buoys, and land- marks visible at considerable distances are shown. General charts are intended for coastwise navigation outside of outlying reefs and shoals. The scales range from about 1:150,000 to 1:600,000. Coast (coastal) charts are intended for inshore coastwise navigation where the course may lie inside outlying reefs and shoals, for entering or leaving bays and harbors of considerable width, and for navigating large inland waterways. The scales range from about 1:50,000 to 1:150,000. Harbor charts are intended for navigation and anchorage in harbors and small waterways. The scale is generally larger than 1:50,000. 2. The classification system used by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency differs from the system in definition 1 above in that the sailing charts are incorporated in the general charts classification (smaller than about 1:150,000); those coast charts especially useful for approaching more confined waters (bays, harbors) are classified as approach charts.

SEA AREA

A defined area under the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) which regulates certain safety and communication equipment necessary according to the area of the ship’s operations. Sea Area A-1 is within coverage of VHF coast radio stations (25-30 miles) providing digital selective calling. Sea Area A-2 is within range of the medium frequency coast radio stations (to approximately 300 miles). Sea Area A-3 is within the footprint of the geostationary INMARSA T communications satellites, covering the rest of the open seas except the poles. Sea Area A-4 covers the rest of the earth, chiefly the polar areas. The areas do not overlap.

POLAR CAP DISTURBANCE

An ionospheric disturbance (which does not refer to the ice cap in the polar regions). It is a result of the focusing effect that the earth’s magnetic field has on particles released from the sun during a solar proton event. The effect concentrates high-energy particles in the region of the magnetic pole with the result that normal very low frequency Omega propagation is disrupted. The effect on radio waves is known as POLAR CAP ABSORPTION (PCA). Historically, polar cap disturbances (PCDs) produced large or total absorption of high frequency radio waves crossing the polar region, hence the term POLAR CAP ABSORPTION. A transmission path which is entirely outside the polar region is unaffected by a PCD. The PCDs, often called PCA EVENTS (PCAs), may persist for a week or more, but duration of only a few days is more common. The PCD can cause line of position errors about 6 to 8 nautical miles. The Omega Propagation Correction Tables make no allowance for this phenomenon since it is not predictable. However, the frequency of the phenomenon increases during those years of peak solar activity.

MOTION

The act, process, or instance of change of position. Absolute motion is motion relative to a fixed point. Actual motion is motion of an object relative to the earth. Apparent or relative motion is change of position as observed from a reference point which may itself be in motion. Diurnal motion is the apparent daily motion of a celestial body. Direct motion is the apparent motion of a planet eastward among the stars; retrograde motion, the apparent motion westward among the stars. Motion of a celestial body through space is called space motion, which is composed of two components: proper motion, that component perpendicular to the line of sight; and radial motion, that component in the direction of the line of sight. Also called MOVEMENT, especially when used in connection with problems involving the motion of one vessel relative to another.

LANE

In any continuous wave phase comparison system, the distance between two successive equiphase lines

COASTAL REFRACTION

The bending of the wave front of a radio wave traveling parallel to a coastline or crossing it at an acute angle due to the differences in the conducting and reflective properties of the land and water over which the wave travels. This refraction affects the accuracy of medium frequency radio direction finding systems. Also called COAST REFRACTION.

DECOMETER

A phase meter used in the Decca Navigator System

FREQUENCY-MODULATED RADAR

A type of radar in which the radiated wave is frequency modulated and the frequency of an echo is compared with the frequency of the transmitted wave at the instant of reception, thus enabling range to be measured.

LINE OF POSITION

A plotted line on which a vessel is located, determined by observation or measurement. Also called POSITION LINE.

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