A method of showing relief on maps and charts by coloring, in different shades, those parts which lie between different levels. Also called ALTITUDE TINTS, COLOR GRADIENTS, ELEVATION TINTS, GRADIENT TINTS, LAYER TINTS.

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A flow situation in which fluid moves in parallel lamina or layers.


A measure of viscosity (absolute viscosity) numerically equal to the force required to move a plane surface of one square centimeter per second when the surfaces are separated by a layer of fluid one centimeter in thickness. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the shear rate of a fluid and is expressed in dyne seconds per square centimeter (DYNE SEC/CM2); 1 centipoise equals .01 poise.


Frictional force overcome in sliding one layer of fluid along another, as in any fluid flow. The shear stress of a petroleum oil or other Newtonian fluid at a given temperature varies directly with shear rate (velocity). The ratio between shear stress and shear rate is constant; this ratio is termed viscosity of a Newtonian fluid, the greater the shear stress as a function of rate of shear. In a non-Newtonian fluid, such as a grease or a polymer-containing oil (e.g. multi-grade oil) - shear stress is not proportional to the rate of shear. A non-Newtonian fluid may be said to have an apparent viscosity, a viscosity that holds only for the shear rate (and temperature) at which the viscosity is determined.


Rate at which adjacent layers of fluid move with respect to each other, usually expressed as reciprocal seconds.


The difference in voltage between the surface of the diffuse layer surrounding a colloidal particle and the bulk liquid beyond.


A type of computerized display which consists of a single layer of data; individual elements cannot be manipulated.


A thin layer of relatively transparent gases above the photosphere of the sun


A principal cloud type (cloud genus), appearing as a whitish veil, usually fibrous but sometimes smooth, which may totally cover the sky, and which often produces halo phenomena, either partial or complete. Sometimes a banded aspect may appear, but the intervals between the bands are filled with thinner cloud veil. The edge of a veil of cirrostratus may be straight and clear-cut, but more often it is irregular and fringed with cirrus. Some of the ice crystals which comprise the cloud are large enough to fall, and thereby produce a fibrous aspect. Cirrostratus occasionally may be so thin and transparent as to render it nearly indiscernible, especially through haze or at night. At such times, the existence of a halo may be the only revealing feature. The angle of incidence of illumination upon a cirrostratus layer is an important consideration in evaluating the identifyin


1. A radio wave that travels directly from the transmitting to the receiving antenna without reflections from any object or layer of the ionosphere. The path may be curved as a result of refraction. 2. A radio wave that is propagated directly through space; it is not influenced by the ground. Also called SPACE WAVE.


A crumbling, earthy deposit, particularly one of clay mixed with sand, lime, decomposed shells, etc. Sometimes a layer of marl becomes quite compact.

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