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Solar radiation received, or the rate of delivery of such radiation.

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PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

A device that detects or measures electromagnetic radiation by generating a potential at a junction (barrier layer) between two types of material, upon absorption of radiant energy. Also known as barrier-layer cell; barrier-layer photocell; boundarylayer photocell; photronic photocell.

PHOTOELECTRIC CONSTANT

The ratio of the frequency of radiation causing emission of photoelectrons to the voltage corresponding to the energy absorbed by a photoelectron; equal to Planck's constant divided by the electron charge.

OVERVOLTAGE

1. A voltage greater than that at which a device or circuit is designed to operate. Also known as overpotential. 2. The amount by which the applied voltage exceeds the Geiger threshold in a radiation counter tube.

OPTOELECTRONICS

1. The branch of electronics that deals with solid-state and other electronic devices for generating, modulating, transmitting, and sensing electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible-light, and infrared portions of the spectrum. 2. See photonics.

NONBLACK BODY

A body that reflects some fraction of the radiation incident upon it; all real bodies are of this nature.

NEUTRON SOIL-MOISTURE METER

An instrument for measuring the water content of soil and rocks as indicated by the scattering and absorption of neutrons emitted from a source, and resulting gamma radiation received by a detector, in a probe lowered into an access hole.

NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING

The law that the rate of heat flow out of an object by both natural convection and radiation is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its environment, and to the surface area of the object.

NEUROMORPHIC ENGINEERING

Use of the functional principles of biological nervous systems to inspire the design and fabrication of artificial nervous systems, such as vision chips fluid-content properties down a wellhole by neutron bombardment and detection of resultant radiation (neutrons or gamma rays). Also known as neutron logging.

MONOPULSE RADAR

Radar in which directional information is obtained with high precision by using a receiving antenna system having two or more partially overlapping lobes in the radiation patterns.

MOLL THERMOPILE

A thermopile used in some types of radiation instruments; alternate junctions of series-connected manganan-constantan molybdenum, added as ferromolybdenum or calcium molybdenum; increases strength, toughness, and wear resistance.

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