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In radio reception, noise due entirely to unwanted transmissions from electrical or electronic apparatus, which has been insufficiently suppressed.

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The electronic technology involved with the practical generation, manipulation, analysis, transmission, and reception of electromagnetic energy in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet portions of the light spectrum. It contributes to many fields, including astronomy, biomedicine, data communications and storage, fiber optics, imaging, optical computing, optoelectronics, sensing, and telecommunications. Also known as optoelectronics.


A photometer that uses a photocell, phototransistor, or phototube to measure the intensity of light. Also known as electronic photometer.


A photometer which uses a tube made of a photoemissive material; it is highly accurate, but requires electronic amplification, and is used mainly in laboratories.


An electronic voltmeter using a pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the temperature of the measurement.


A seismograph that measures the relative motion between the ground and a loosely coupled inertial mass; in some instruments, optical magnification is used whereas others exploit electromagnetic transducers, photocells, galvanometers, and electronic amplifiers to achieve higher magnification.


An undesired and energywasting signal current, capacitance, or other parameter of an electronic circuit.


1. The branch of electronics that deals with solid-state and other electronic devices for generating, modulating, transmitting, and sensing electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible-light, and infrared portions of the spectrum. 2. See photonics.


Microcircuit in which discrete, miniature, active electronic elements (transistor or diode chips) and thin-film or diffused passive components or component clusters are interconnected by thermocompression bonds, alloying, soldering, welding, chemical deposition, or metallization.


1. A building that is constructed of preassembled or presized units of standard sizes; uses a 4-inch (10.16-centimeter) cubical module as a reference. 2. An assembly involving the use of integral multiples of a given length for the dimensions of electronic components and electronic equipment, as well as for spacings of holes in a chassis or printed wiring board. 3. An assembly made from modules.


A microsystem that combines the functions of optical, mechanical, and electronic components in a single, very small package or assembly.

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