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The study of the sea, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the sea’s physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of sea water, and marine biology. Strictly, oceanog- raphy is the description of the marine environment, whereas OCEANOLOGY is the study of the oceans.

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A plot of the poles and zeros of a transfer function in the complex plane; used to study the stability of a system, its natural motion, its frequency response, and its transient response.


A method of displaying the character of a particular trajectory without examining its complete time development, in which the trajectory is sampled periodically, and the rate of change of a quantity under study is plotted against the value of that quantity at the beginning of each period. Also known as surface of section.


A dimensionless number used in the study of forced convection which gives a measure of the ratio of the total heat transfer to conductive heat transfer, and is equal to the heat-transfer coefficient times a characteristic length divided by the thermal conductivity. Symbolized NNu.


The study of the dynamics of systems in which all speeds are small compared to the speed of light.


A calorimeter for measuring specific heats at low temperatures, in which the heat reservoir consists of a metal of high thermal conductivity such as copper, to promote rapid temperature equalization; none of the material under study is more than a few millimeters from a metal surface, and the whole apparatus is placed in an evacuated vessel and heated by current through a platinum heating coil.


Detailed study of the motions used in a work task or at a given work area.


The study that deals with the measurement of water vapor at low temperatures; the techniques used differ from those of conventional hygrometry because of the extremely small amounts of moisture present at low temperatures and the difficulties imposed by the increase of the time constants of the standard instruments when operated at these temperatures.


An initial step in the design of a robotic system consisting of a detailed study of all aspects of the placement of components such as work stations, buffers, and materials-handling equipment, as well as accessories, tools, and workpieces within a work station.


The study of a system by means of a model consisting of a linear mapping between the system inputs (causes or excitations), applied at the input terminals, and the system outputs (effects or responses), measured or observed at the output terminals.


A detailed study of the 306 work performed, the facilities required, the working conditions, and the skills required to complete a specific job. Also known as job study.

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