Very smooth flow in which all the molecules are traveling in generally the same direction. For internal flows, it occurs at Reynolds numbers less than 2000.

Related Terms


Mass-transfer theory for packed absorption towers, stating that liquid flows across each packing piece in laminar flow and is mixed with other liquids meeting it at the points of discontinuity between packing elements.


A flow situation in which fluid moves in parallel lamina or layers.


Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow, with turbulence in the center of the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. Each of these flows behave in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing and have different equations that predict their behavior. 2300 < Re < 4000 (Reynolds number)


Laminar flow described as a series of liquid cylinders in the pipe enclosed in each other, where the innermost parts flow the fastest, and the cylinder touching the pipe is steady. Re < 2300 (Reynolds number)


A long, narrow tube that is used to measure the laminar flow of fluids.


Characteristically random flow patterns that form eddies from large to small scales. For internal flows, it occurs at Reynolds numbers greater than 4000. Turbulence is integral to the mixing process between the fuel and air for combustion.


The transmission of a pressure impulse by means of pneumatic pressure through a length of small-bore tubing; used for remote transmission of signals from primary process-unit sensing elements for pressure, temperature, flow rate, and so on.


A loose-fitting metal plug in a tapered rotameter tube which moves upward (or downward) with an increase (or decrease) in fluid flow rate upward through the tube. Also known as float.


A variable-area flowmeter in which a tapered plug, located in an orifice and raised until the resulting opening is sufficient to handle the fluid flow, is used to measure the flow rate.


1. Braking an electric motor by reversing its connections, so it tends to turn in the opposite direction; the circuit is opened automatically when the motor stops, so the motor does not actually reverse. 2. The formation of a barrier (plug) of solid material in a process flow system, such as a pipe or reactor.

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