# SAILING

A method of solving the various problems involving course, distance, difference of latitude, difference of longitude, and departure. The various methods are collectively spoken of as the sailings. Plane sailing considers the earth as a plane. Traverse sailing applies the principles of plane sailing to determine the equivalent course and distance made good by a craft following a track consisting of a series of rhumb lines. Any of the sailings which considers the spherical or spheroidal shape of the earth is called spherical sailing. Middlelatitude sailing is a method of converting departure into difference of longitude, or vice versa, by assuming that such a course is steered at the middle or mean latitude; if the course is 090° or 270° true, it is called parallel sailing. Mercator sailing applies when the various elements are considered in their relation on a Mercator chart. Meridian sailing is used when the course is 000° or 180° true. Rhumb-line sailing is used when a rhumb line is involved; great- circle sailing when a great circle track is involved. Composite sailing is a modification of great circle sailing used when it is desired to limit the highest latitude. The expression current sailing is occasionally used to refer to the process of allowing for current in determining the predicted course made good, or of determining the effect of a current on the direction of motion of a vessel.

## Related Terms

### PLI

A unit of line density (mass per unit length) equal to 1 pound per inch, or approximately 17.8580 kilograms per meter.

### PITCH ATTITUDE

The attitude of an aircraft, rocket, or other flying vehicle, referred to the relationship between the longitudinal body axis and a chosen reference line or plane as seen from the side.

### PIPELINE

A line of pipe connected to valves and other control devices, for conducting fluids, gases, or finely divided solids.

The line in navigable waters beyond which construction is prohibited; open-pier construction may extend outward from the bulkhead line to the pierhead line.

### PICTURE ELEMENT

1. That portion, in facsimile, of the subject copy which is seen by the scanner at any instant; it can be considered a square area having dimensions equal to the width of the scanning line. 2. In television, any segment of a scanning line, the dimension of which along the line is exactly equal to the nominal line width; the area which is being explored at any instant in the scanning process. Also known as critical area; elemental area; pixel; recording spot; scanning spot.

### PHOTOELECTRICLOOPCONTROL

[CONTSYS] Aphotoelectric control system used as a position regulator for a loop of material passing from one stripprocessing line to another that may travel at a different speed. Also known as loop control.

### PENDULUM LEVEL

A leveling instrument in which the line of sight is automatically kept horizontal by a built-in pendulum device (such as a horizontal arm and a plumb line at right angles to the arm).

### PANCAKE AUGER

An auger having one spiral web, 12 to 15 inches (30 to 38 centimeters) in diameter, attached to the bottom end of a slender central shaft; used as removable deadman to which a drill rig or guy line is anchored.

### OFFSET LINE

A secondary line established close to and roughly parallel with the primary survey line to which it is referenced by measured offsets.

### OFF-LINE

1. A condition existing when the drive rod of the drill swivel head is not centered and parallel with the borehole being drilled. 2. A borehole that has deviated from its intended course. 3. A condition existing wherein any linear excavation (shaft, drift, borehole) deviates from a previously determined or intended survey line or course. 4. State in which an equipment or subsystem is in standby, maintenance, or mode of operation other than online.

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