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An atmosphere having the standard refractive modulus gradient.

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An instrument which determines atmospheric pressure by measuring the height of a column of mercury which the atmosphere will support; the mercury is in a glass tube closed at one end and placed, open end down, in a well of mercury. Also known as Torricellian barometer.


The study which treats of the measurement of the humidity of the atmosphere and other gases.


A chemical process operating at elevated pressure; for example, phenol manufacture at 330 atmospheres (1 atmosphere 101,325 pascals), ethylene polymerization at 2000 atm, ammonia synthesis at 100 1000 atm, and synthetic-diamond manufacture up to 100,000 atm.


A device permitting air movement between atmosphere and the component in/ on which it is installed.


Is the mixture of gases and water vapor surrounding the earth.


Fine dust or salt particles in the air, too small to be individually apparent but in sufficient number to reduce horizontal visibility and give the atmosphere a characteristic hazy appearance which casts a bluish or yellowish veil over the landscape, subduing its colors. This is sometimes called a dry haze to distinguish it from damp haze, small water droplets or very hygroscopic particles in the air, smaller and more scattered than light fog.


Pressure exerted by the atmosphere at any specific location. (Sea level pressure is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute.)


The water portion of the earth as distinguished from the solid part, called the LITHOSPHERE, and from the gaseous outer envelope, called the ATMOSPHERE


Layers of charged particles existing in the upper reaches of the atmosphere as a result of solar radiation.


The rate of decrease of temperature in the atmosphere with height, or, sometimes, the rate of change of any meteorological element with height.

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