# SUMNER METHOD

The establishing of a line of position from the observation of the altitude of a celestial body by assuming two latitudes (or longitudes) and calculating the longitudes (or latitudes) through which the line of position passes. The line of position is the straight line connecting these two points (extended if necessary). This method, discovered by Thomas H. Sumner, an American sea captain, is seldom used by modern navigators, an adaptation of it, called ST. HILAIRE METHOD, being favored.

## Related Terms

### PLI

A unit of line density (mass per unit length) equal to 1 pound per inch, or approximately 17.8580 kilograms per meter.

### PITCH ATTITUDE

The attitude of an aircraft, rocket, or other flying vehicle, referred to the relationship between the longitudinal body axis and a chosen reference line or plane as seen from the side.

### PIPELINE

A line of pipe connected to valves and other control devices, for conducting fluids, gases, or finely divided solids.

The line in navigable waters beyond which construction is prohibited; open-pier construction may extend outward from the bulkhead line to the pierhead line.

### PICTURE ELEMENT

1. That portion, in facsimile, of the subject copy which is seen by the scanner at any instant; it can be considered a square area having dimensions equal to the width of the scanning line. 2. In television, any segment of a scanning line, the dimension of which along the line is exactly equal to the nominal line width; the area which is being explored at any instant in the scanning process. Also known as critical area; elemental area; pixel; recording spot; scanning spot.

### PHOTOELECTRICLOOPCONTROL

[CONTSYS] Aphotoelectric control system used as a position regulator for a loop of material passing from one stripprocessing line to another that may travel at a different speed. Also known as loop control.

### PENDULUM LEVEL

A leveling instrument in which the line of sight is automatically kept horizontal by a built-in pendulum device (such as a horizontal arm and a plumb line at right angles to the arm).

### PANCAKE AUGER

An auger having one spiral web, 12 to 15 inches (30 to 38 centimeters) in diameter, attached to the bottom end of a slender central shaft; used as removable deadman to which a drill rig or guy line is anchored.

### OFFSET LINE

A secondary line established close to and roughly parallel with the primary survey line to which it is referenced by measured offsets.

### OFF-LINE

1. A condition existing when the drive rod of the drill swivel head is not centered and parallel with the borehole being drilled. 2. A borehole that has deviated from its intended course. 3. A condition existing wherein any linear excavation (shaft, drift, borehole) deviates from a previously determined or intended survey line or course. 4. State in which an equipment or subsystem is in standby, maintenance, or mode of operation other than online.

### Related questions

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