The study and treatment of toponyms.

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The science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubrication, friction and wear. Tribological wear is wear that occurs as a result of relative motion at the surface.


The scientific study of the waters of the earth, especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of ground water.


A spherical chamber in which persons are lowered for observation and study of ocean depths


The study of the motions of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitational fields


1. The study of climate. 2. An account of the climate of a particular place or region


The study of the composition and physical phenomena of the earth and its liquid and gaseous envelopes; it embraces the study of terrestrial magnetism, atmospheric electricity, and gravity; and it includes seismology, volcanology, oceanography, meteorology, and related sciences.


The study of the floors and margins of the oceans, including description of submarine relief features, chemical and physical composition of bottom materials, interaction of sediments and rocks with air and seawater, and action of various forms of wave energy in the submarine crust of the earth.


The study of the behavior of matter at very low temperatures.


The study of air-vapor mixtures.


The study of the sea, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the sea’s physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of sea water, and marine biology. Strictly, oceanog- raphy is the description of the marine environment, whereas OCEANOLOGY is the study of the oceans.

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