Conceptually, time as determined from the apparent diurnal motion of a fictitious mean sun which moves uniformly along the celestial equator at the average rate of the apparent sun. Actually, Universal Time (UT) is related to the rotation of the earth through its definition in terms of sidereal time. Universal Time at any instant is derived from observations of the diurnal motions of the stars. The time scale determined directly from such observations is slightly dependent on the place of observation; this scale is designated UT0. By removing from UT0 the effect of the variation of the observer’s meridian due to the observed motion of the geographic pole, the scale UT1 is established. A scale designated UT2 results from applying to UT1 an adopted formula for the seasonal variation in the rate of the earth’s rotation. UT1 and UT2 are independent of the location of the observer. UT1 is the same as Greenwich mean time used in navigation.

Related Terms


A device which converts mechanical force and motion into pneumatic flow power.


A sliding type of bearing having either rotating or oscillatory motion and in conjunction with which a journal operates. In a full or sleeve type journal bearing, the bearing surface is 360° in extent. In a partial bearing, the bearing surface is less than 360° in extent, i.e., 150°, 120°, etc.


The time rate of change of velocity; i.e., the derivative of velocity; with respect to time.


Amount of time an unit, equipment or system is run per hour or per 24 hours.


The specified time interval of a Loran C chain for all stations of the chain to transmit their pulse groups. For each chain a minimum group repetition interval (GRI) is selected of sufficient duration to provide time for each station to transmit its pulse group and additional time between each pulse group so that signals from two or more stations cannot overlap in time anywhere within the coverage area. The GRI is normally stated in terms of tens of microseconds; i.e., the GRI having a duration of 79,900 microseconds is stated as 7900.


Any real function that satisfies a certain equation. In its simplest form, as used in tide and tidal current predictions, it is a quantity that varies as the cosine of an angle that increases uniformly with time


Angular distance west of the Greenwich celestial meridian; the arc of the celestial equator, or the angle at the celestial pole, between the upper branch of the Greenwich celestial meridian and the hour circle of a point on the celestial sphere, measured westward from the Greenwich celestial meridian throug


A set of celestial coordinates based on the celestial horizon as the primary great circle; usually altitude and azimuth or azimuth angle.


A radarscope phenomenon which appears as a constriction or expansion of the display near the center of the plan position indicator, which can be caused by a nonlinear time base or the sweep plot starting on the radar indicator at the same instant as the transmission of the pulse. The phenomenon is most apparent when in narrow rivers or close to shore.


The projection of circular motion on a diameter of the circle of such motion. Simple harmonic motion is produced if the circular motion is of constant speed. The combination of two or more simple harmonic motions results in compound harmonic motion.

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