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# COMPRESSIVE STRESS

 A stress resists a force tending to crush a body.

## Related Terms

### SHEAR

An action that causes molecules of a body to be slid past each other. Scissors perform a shearing effect on paper. Shear force is used to punch out holes in a sheet of stainless steel. Shear stress is stress caused by a force that tends to cause particles to slide past each other.

### INELASTIC BUCKLING

Sudden increase of deflection or twist in a column when compressive stress reaches the elastic limit but before elastic buckling develops.

### ALTERNATING STRESS

A stress produced in a material by forces which are such that each force alternately acts in opposite directions.

### COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

The maximum compressive stress a material can withstand without failure.

### CRUSHING STRENGTH

The compressive stress required to cause a solid to fail by fracture; in essence, it is the resistance of the solid to vertical pressure placed upon it.

### POISE

A measure of viscosity (absolute viscosity) numerically equal to the force required to move a plane surface of one square centimeter per second when the surfaces are separated by a layer of fluid one centimeter in thickness. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the shear rate of a fluid and is expressed in dyne seconds per square centimeter (DYNE SEC/CM2); 1 centipoise equals .01 poise.

### SHEARING STRESS

A stress resists a force tending to make one layer of a body slide across another layer.

### BALANCED REINFORCEMENT

An amount and distribution of steel reinforcement in a flexural reinforced concrete member such that the allowable tensile stress in the steel and the allowable compressive stress in the concrete are attained simultaneously.

### NEUTRAL FIBER

A line of zero stress in cross section of a bent beam, separating the region of compressive stress from that of tensile stress.

### SHEAR STRESS

Frictional force overcome in sliding one layer of fluid along another, as in any fluid flow. The shear stress of a petroleum oil or other Newtonian fluid at a given temperature varies directly with shear rate (velocity). The ratio between shear stress and shear rate is constant; this ratio is termed viscosity of a Newtonian fluid, the greater the shear stress as a function of rate of shear. In a non-Newtonian fluid, such as a grease or a polymer-containing oil (e.g. multi-grade oil) - shear stress is not proportional to the rate of shear. A non-Newtonian fluid may be said to have an apparent viscosity, a viscosity that holds only for the shear rate (and temperature) at which the viscosity is determined.

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