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A stress resists a force tending to crush a body.

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An action that causes molecules of a body to be slid past each other. Scissors perform a shearing effect on paper. Shear force is used to punch out holes in a sheet of stainless steel. Shear stress is stress caused by a force that tends to cause particles to slide past each other.


Sudden increase of deflection or twist in a column when compressive stress reaches the elastic limit but before elastic buckling develops.


A stress produced in a material by forces which are such that each force alternately acts in opposite directions.


The maximum compressive stress a material can withstand without failure.


The compressive stress required to cause a solid to fail by fracture; in essence, it is the resistance of the solid to vertical pressure placed upon it.


A measure of viscosity (absolute viscosity) numerically equal to the force required to move a plane surface of one square centimeter per second when the surfaces are separated by a layer of fluid one centimeter in thickness. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the shear rate of a fluid and is expressed in dyne seconds per square centimeter (DYNE SEC/CM2); 1 centipoise equals .01 poise.


A stress resists a force tending to make one layer of a body slide across another layer.


An amount and distribution of steel reinforcement in a flexural reinforced concrete member such that the allowable tensile stress in the steel and the allowable compressive stress in the concrete are attained simultaneously.


A line of zero stress in cross section of a bent beam, separating the region of compressive stress from that of tensile stress.


Frictional force overcome in sliding one layer of fluid along another, as in any fluid flow. The shear stress of a petroleum oil or other Newtonian fluid at a given temperature varies directly with shear rate (velocity). The ratio between shear stress and shear rate is constant; this ratio is termed viscosity of a Newtonian fluid, the greater the shear stress as a function of rate of shear. In a non-Newtonian fluid, such as a grease or a polymer-containing oil (e.g. multi-grade oil) - shear stress is not proportional to the rate of shear. A non-Newtonian fluid may be said to have an apparent viscosity, a viscosity that holds only for the shear rate (and temperature) at which the viscosity is determined.

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