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A change created when one or more new substances are produced with properties different from the original substance(s).

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(1) chemically speaking, a distinct substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight and possessing physical and chemical properties different from those of the combining elements. (2) in petroleum processing, generally connotes fatty oils and similar materials foreign to petroleum added to lubricants to impart special properties.


A substance which speeds a chemical action without undergoing a chemical change itself during the process. Now used in catalytic converters to control amount of unburned hydrocarbons and CO in automobile exhaust.


The smallest complete particle of an element, which can be obtained, yet which retains all physical and chemical properties of the element.


An analytical method using infrared absorption for assessing the properties of used oil and certain contaminants suspended therein. See FTIR.


A condition of lubrication in which the film thickness of the lubricant is such that the friction between the surfaces is determined by the properties of the surfaces as well as by the viscosity of the lubricant.


A hypothetical antenna which radiates or receives equally well in all directions. Although such an antenna does not physically exist, it provides a convenient reference for expressing the directional properties of actual antennas. Also called UNIPOLE


Transport of atmospheric properties solely by mass motion of the atmosphere. WIND refers to air motion, while ADVECTION refers more specifically to the transfer of any property of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity, etc.) from one area to another.


An extensive body of air with fairly uniform (horizontal) physical properties, especially temperature and humidity. In its incipient stage the properties of the air mass are determined by the characteristics of the region in which it forms. It is a cold or warm air mass if it is colder or warmer than the surrounding air.


The six coefficients used in the analysis of the magnetic properties of a vessel in the course of magnetic compass adjustment. The values of these coefficients are determined from deviations of an unadjusted compass.


A mathematical law which predicts the probability that the random error of any given observation of a series of observations of a certain quantity will lie within certain bounds. The law can be derived from the following properties of random errors: (1) positive and negative errors of the same magnitude are about equal in number, (2) small errors occur more frequently than large errors, and (3) extremely large errors rarely occur. One immediate consequence of these properties is that the average or mean value of a large number of observations of a given quantity is zero. Also called GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION.
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