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Any change that comes about through the chemical action of substances on each other, i.e. rusting and combustion are both chemical reactions involving the oxidation of a substance.

Related Terms

COMPOUND

(1) chemically speaking, a distinct substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight and possessing physical and chemical properties different from those of the combining elements. (2) in petroleum processing, generally connotes fatty oils and similar materials foreign to petroleum added to lubricants to impart special properties.

ACTION

Refers to the action of a controller. It defines what is done to regulate the final control element to effect control.

CROWN

The top of the piston in an internal combustion engine above the fire ring, exposed to direct flame impingement.

CAM

Eccentric shaft used in most internal combustion engines to open and close valves.

CORROSION INHIBITOR

Additive for protecting lubricated metal surfaces against chemical attack by water or other contaminants. There are several types of corrosion inhibitors. Polar compounds wet the metal surface preferentially, protecting it with a film of oil. Other compounds may absorb water by incorporating it in a water-in-oil emulsion so that only the oil touches the metal surface. Another type of corrosion inhibitor combines chemically with the metal to present a non- reactive surface.

ALKALI

Any substance having basic (as opposed to acidic) properties. In a restricted sense it is applied to the hydroxides of ammonium, lithium, potassium and sodium. Alkaline materials in lubricating oils neutralize acids to prevent acidic and corrosive wear in internal combustion engines.

False brinelling

False brinelling of needle roller bearings is actually a fretting corrosion of the surface since the rollers are the I.D. of the bearing. Although its appearance is similar to that of brinelling, false brinelling is characterized by attrition of the steel, and the load on the bearing is less than that required to produce the resulting impression. It is the result of a combination of mechanical and chemical action that is not completely understood, and occurs when a small relative motion or vibration is accompanied by some loading, in the presence of oxygen.

FRICTION

The resisting force encountered at the common boundary between two bodies when, under the action of an external force, one body, moves or tends to move relative to the surface of the other.

HYDROLYTIC STABILITY

Ability of additives and certain synthetic lubricants to resist chemical decomposition (hydrolysis) in the presence of water.

CATALYST

A substance which speeds a chemical action without undergoing a chemical change itself during the process. Now used in catalytic converters to control amount of unburned hydrocarbons and CO in automobile exhaust.
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