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The ability to do work. Energy has the same units as work (Joules) and is convertible to many different forms such as heat, mechanical, chemical, nuclear.

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT

All material and energy present in and around an operating system, such as dust, air moisture, chemicals, and thermal energy.

ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

Measures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and directly aspirating the solution. The actual process of atomization involves reducing the solution to a fine spray, dissolving it, and finally vaporizing it with a flame. The vaporization of the metal particles depends upon their time in the flame, the flame temperature, and the composition of the flame gas. The spectrum occurs because atoms in the vapor state can absorb radiation at certain well-defined characteristic wave lengths. The wave length bands absorbed are very narrow and differ for each element. In addition, the absorption of radiant energy by electronic transitions from ground to excited state is essentially and absolute measure of the number of atoms in the flame and is, therefore, the concentration of the element in a sample.

INTERFACIAL TENSION (IFT)

The energy per unit area present at the boundary of two immiscible liquids. It is usually expressed in dynes/cm (ASTM Designation D 971.)

GROUND ABSORPTION

The dissipation of energy in radio waves because of absorption by the ground over which the waves are transmitted.

THERMOGRAPHY

The use of infrared thermography whereby temperatures of a wide variety of targets can be measured remotely and without contact. This is accomplished by measuring the infrared energy radiating from the surface of the target and converting this measurement to an equivalent surface temperature.

INDIRECT ECHO

A radar echo which is caused by the electromagnetic energy being transmitted to the target by an indirect path and returned as an echo along the same path. An indirect echo may appear on the radar display when the main lobe of the radar beam is reflected off part of the structure of the ship (the stack for example) from which it is reflected to the target. Returning to own ship by the same indirect path, the echo appears on the PPI at the bearing of the reflecting surface. Assuming that the additional distance by the indirect path is negligible, the indirect echo appears on the PPI at the same range as the direct echo received. Also called FALSE ECHO.

DISPLACEMENT PUMP

Pumps in which energy is added to the water periodically and the water is contained in a set volume.

THERMAL EFFICIENCY

Ratio of shaft work out of a system to the heat energy into the system.

ELEVATION HEAD

The energy possessed per unit weight of a fluid because of its elevation.

ENGINE

Prime mover; device for transforming fuel or heat energy into mechanical energy.
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