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The outer layers of the earths crust and mantle.

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A brittle shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing or from grease ice, usually in water of low salinity. Of thickness to about 5 centimeters, ice rind is easily broken by wind or swell, commonly breaking into rectangular pieces.


A protective crust of corrosion products (rust) which builds up over a pit caused by the loss of metal due to corrosion.


The study of the floors and margins of the oceans, including description of submarine relief features, chemical and physical composition of bottom materials, interaction of sediments and rocks with air and seawater, and action of various forms of wave energy in the submarine crust of the earth.


A thin elastic crust of ice, easily bending on waves and swell and under pressure, thrusting in a pattern of interlocking 'fingers'. Nilas has a matte surface and is up to 10 centimeters in thickness. It may be subdivided into DARK NILAS and LIGHT NILAS.


The powder or crust formed on a substance when moisture is evaporated from it.


The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to civil engineering problems through acquiring, interpreting, and using knowledge of materials of the crust of the earth.
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