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An arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them with a bare metal electrode. the arc is maintained with a blanket of granulated flux. A consumable filler wire is employed and the arc is maintained between this wire and the parent plate. Around the arc the granulated flux breaks down and provides some gases and a highly protective thermally insulating molten container for the arc. This allows a high concentration of heat, making the process very efficient and suitable for heavy deposits at fast speeds. After welding the molten metal is protected by a layer of fused flux which together with the unfused flux may be recovered before cooling.

The process is basically only intended for down hand applications and where it is used for single pass welding of any size it is essential to use some form of the backing bar because of the comparatively large weld pool obtained. Here the backing bar may be of copper and waste cooled or a flux trough may be provided to form the underbead.

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