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1) Graphitization - Cast iron, ferrous materials corrode leaving a soft matrix structure of carbon flakes. 2) Dezincification - Brass with a high zinc content in contact with sea water, corrodes and the copper is redeposited. Inhibitors such as arsenic, antimony or phosphorus can be used , but are ineffective at higher temperatures. Tin has some improving effects. 3) Exfoliation (denickelfication) - Normally occurs in feed heaters with a cupro-nickel tubing (temp 205°C or higher)
Very low sea water flow condensers also susceptible.
Nickel oxidised forming layers of copper and nickel oxide. 4) Ammonium corrosion - Ammonium formed by the decomposition of hydrazine
Dissolve cupric oxide formed on copper or copper alloy tubes
Does not attack copper, hence oxygen required to provide corrosion, Hence only possible at the lower temperature regions where the hydrazine is less effective or inactive,
The copper travels to the boiler and leads to piting.

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