# AFRA

Average Freight Rate Assessments

## Related Terms

### COLD CRANKING SIMULATOR

An intermediate shear rate viscometer that predicts the ability of an oil to permit a satisfactory cranking speed to be developed in a cold engine. (CCS)

### ACCELERATION

The rate of change of velocity, as a function of time. Expressed in m/s2.

### ACCELERATION

The time rate of change of velocity; i.e., the derivative of velocity; with respect to time.

### HORIZONTAL EARTH RATE

The rate at which the spin axis of a gyroscope must be tilted about the horizontal axi

### FILTER LIFE TEST

A type of filter capacity test in which a clogging contaminant is added to the influent of a filter, under specified test conditions, to produce a given rise in pressure drop across the filter or until a specified reduction of flow is reached. Filter life may be expressed as test time required to reach terminal conditions at a specified contaminant addition rate.

### LIQUID

Any substance that flows readily or changes in response to the smallest influence. More generally, any substance in which the force required to produce a deformation depends on the rate of deformation rather than on the magnitude of the deformation.

### POISE

A measure of viscosity (absolute viscosity) numerically equal to the force required to move a plane surface of one square centimeter per second when the surfaces are separated by a layer of fluid one centimeter in thickness. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the shear rate of a fluid and is expressed in dyne seconds per square centimeter (DYNE SEC/CM2); 1 centipoise equals .01 poise.

### SOLID

Any substance having a definite shape which it does not readily relinquish. More generally, any substance in which the force required to produce a deformation depends upon the magnitude of the deformation rather than upon the rate of deformation.

### PUMPABILITY

The low temperature, low shear stress-shear rate viscosity characteristics of an fluid that permit satisfactory flow.

### NEWTONIAN FLUID

A fluid with a constant viscosity at a given temperature regardless of the rate of shear. Single-grade oils are Newtonian fluids. Multigrade oils are NON-Newtonian fluids because viscosity varies with shear rate.