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Institute of Petroleum

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COMPOUND

(1) chemically speaking, a distinct substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight and possessing physical and chemical properties different from those of the combining elements. (2) in petroleum processing, generally connotes fatty oils and similar materials foreign to petroleum added to lubricants to impart special properties.

API

The American Petroleum Institute abbreviation.

ABSORPTION

The assimilation of one material into another; in petroleum refining, the use of an absorptive liquid to selectively remove components from a process stream.

ANTI-FOAM AGENT

Additive used to reduce foaming in petroleum products: silicone oil to break up large surface bubbles, and various kinds of polymers that decrease the amount of small bubbles entrained in the oils.

COPPER STRIP CORROSION

A qualitative measure of the tendency of a petroleum product to corrode pure copper.

API GRAVITY

A gravity scale established by the American Petroleum Institute and in general use in the petroleum industry, the unit being called 'the A.P.I. degree' .

BARREL

A unit of liquid volume of petroleum oils equal to 42 U.S. gallons or approximately 35 Imperial gallons.

HYDROCARBON

Compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. Petroleum consists chiefly of hydrocarbons.

BASE STOCK

The base fluid, usually a refined petroleum fraction or a selected synthetic material, into which additives are blended to produce finished lubricants.

IMMISCIBLE

Incapable of being mixed without separation of phases. Water and petroleum oil are immiscible under most conditions, although they can be made miscible with the addition of an emulsifier.
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