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Automatic radar plotting aids.

Related Terms

GROWLER

A piece of ice smaller than a BERGY BIT or FLOEBERG, often transparent but appearing green or almost black in color. It extends less than 1 meter above the sea surface and its length is less than 20 feet (6 meters). A growler is large enough to be a hazard to shipping but small enough that it may escape visual or radar detection.

HALF-POWER POINTS

Power ratios used to define the angular width of a radar beam. One convention defines beam width as the angular width between points at which the field strength is 71 percent of its maximum value. Expressed in terms of power ratio, this convention defines beam width as the angular width between half-power points. A second convention defines beam width as the angular width between points at which the field strength is 50 percent of its maximum value. Expressed in terms of power ratio, the latter convention defines beam width as the angular width between quarter- power points.

HOUR-GLASS EFFECT

A radarscope phenomenon which appears as a constriction or expansion of the display near the center of the plan position indicator, which can be caused by a nonlinear time base or the sweep plot starting on the radar indicator at the same instant as the transmission of the pulse. The phenomenon is most apparent when in narrow rivers or close to shore.

GYROPILOT

An automatic device for steering a vessel by means of control signals received from a gyrocompass. Also called AUTOPILOT

INDIRECT ECHO

A radar echo which is caused by the electromagnetic energy being transmitted to the target by an indirect path and returned as an echo along the same path. An indirect echo may appear on the radar display when the main lobe of the radar beam is reflected off part of the structure of the ship (the stack for example) from which it is reflected to the target. Returning to own ship by the same indirect path, the echo appears on the PPI at the bearing of the reflecting surface. Assuming that the additional distance by the indirect path is negligible, the indirect echo appears on the PPI at the same range as the direct echo received. Also called FALSE ECHO.

IN-BAND RACON

A racon which transmits in the marine radar frequency band. There are two types of in-band racons, swept-frequency racons and experimental fixed-frequency racons. The transmitter of the sweptfrequency racon sweeps through a range of frequencies within the band to insure that a radar receiver tuned to a particular frequency within the band will be able to detect the signal. The fixed-frequency racon transmits on

MULTIPLE ECHOES

Radar echoes which may occur when a strong echo is received from another ship at close range. A second or third or more echoes may be observed on the radarscope at double triple, or other multiples of the actual range of the radar target, resulting from the echo’s being reflected by own ship back to the target and received once again as an echo at a multiple of the preceding range to the target. This term should not be confused with MULTIPLE-TRACE ECHO.

FROST FREE REFRIGERATOR

Refrigerated cabinet which operates with an automatic defrost during each cycle.

INTERROGATOR

A radar transmitter which sends out a pulse that triggers a transponder. An interrogator may be combined in a single unit with a responsor, which receives the reply from a transponder and produces an output suitable for feeding a display system; the combined unit is called INTERROGATOR-RESPONDER. Also called CHALLENGER.

INTER-TRACE DISPLAY

A technique for presenting additional information, in the form of alphanumerics, markers, cursors, etc., on a radar display, by using the intervals between the normal presentation scans. Also called INTER-SCAN.
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